rajatarangini was translated into persian by


The status of Kalhana's poem Rajatarangini was mediated in colonial India in part through its English translations. Such striking historical details aside, the preeminent fact is that Kalhanas is a literary text of extraordinary merit. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. orders. During the reign of Zain-ul-Abideen, the eighth Sultan of Kashmir, Mulla Ahmad translated Kalhana's Rajatarangini into Persian. . Notes: Rajatarangini is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. [14], Shah Mir worked to establish Islam in Kashmir and was aided by his descendant rulers, specially Sikandar Butshikan. Sanskrit is a Indo-Aryan part of the Indo-European dialects. Verse 13. Kalhana's account closes in the 22nd year of his reign. Called "the blind" because of his small eyes. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Kalhana describes Shamkaravarman (883902) thus (Stein's trans. His descendant Meghavahana later restored the dynasty's rule. Cite earlier authors: The oldest extensive works containing the royal chronicles [of Kashmir] have become fragmentary in consequence of [the appearance of] Suvrata's composition, who condensed them in order that (their substance) might be easily remembered. This refers to the fact that the power had passed to the brothers of a queen, who was born in a family of spirit-distillers. According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana has confused the legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain with the Vardhana Emperor Harsha (c. 606-47 CE). Contextual translation of "poyu ta" from Persian into Tagalog. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. Owing to a certain want of care, there is not a single part in Ksemendra's "List of Kings" (Nrpavali) free from mistakes, though it is the work of a poet. He called back the Hindus who left Kashmir during his father's reign. By clicking Accept All, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. [18] Iinternal rebellions were ably suppressed. Answer. Although the earlier books are inaccurate in their chronology, they still provide an invaluable source of information about early Kashmir and its neighbors in the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent, and are widely referenced by later historians and ethnographers. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Performance". translator of the Rajataragini. Running into almost 8000 stanzas that are inconsistently disseminated among eight books or areas, the. After the Utpala dynasty, a Yashaskara became king (V.469). Jonaraja in his Dvitiya Rajatara? The broad valley of Kashmir, also spelled Cashmere[2] is almost completely surrounded by the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range. Murdered by Radda. The first translation of a portion of the Rajatarangini was carried out in Persian, at the behest of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin (1421-1472) A.D of Kashmir. It joins a long catalogue of such translations from Sanskrit beginning with that of Kautilyas Traces of genuine history are also found, however, in references to the Mauryan emperors Ashoka and Jalauka; the Buddhist Kushan kings Hushka (Huviska), Jushka (Vajheska), and Kanishka (Kaniska); and Mihirakula, a Huna king. It covers the entire span of history in the Kashmir region from the earliest times to the date of its composition. Son of Vajraditya II and Massa. It is the 25th most populated city in India, located on the banks of River Vaigai. But even this account is not fully reliable from a historical point of view. He was a religious king, and followed a near-ascetic lifestyle. This seems to be official genealogy of the Sultanate. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc. He filled his court with, Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II), According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of, Younger brother of Vikramaditya. The author of the Rajatarangini history chronicles the rulers of the valley from earliest times, from the epic period of the Mahbhrata to the reign of Sangrama Deva (c.1006 CE), before the Muslim era. Usurped the throne, claiming to be a descendant of Yashaskara. In that officials, Abdul Fazi translated Ramayana into Persian. Rajatarangini ("The River of Kings") is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western part of India, particularly the kings of Kashmir. The Lohara family was founded by a Nara of Darvabhisara (IV.712). Rajatarangini, which Mulla Abd al-Qadir Badauni translated into Persian at Akbars Answer: Kalhana was the author of Rajatarangini (River of Kings), an account of the history of Kashmir. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. The Hindi translation of Pandeya Ram Tej is another well-acclaimed book. Let us know more about Rajatarangini. Learn about the life of Vallabhacharya, a great saint and philosopher. . Concerning past occasions, Kalhana wrote that the material was genuinely picky. He wrote the work in Sanskrit between 1148 and 1149. The chronicles only start to align with other evidence by book IV. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, a social and educational reformer, was an idealist who contributed immensely in eradicating social evils prevalent in the society during the 18th century.He was popularly known as "Father of Modern India". Uchchala's step-brother; became the king after Radda's death. Get answers to the most common queries related to the Railway Examination Preparation. The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India, founded by, After a Damodara ("of Ashoka's kula or another"), we have Hushka, Jushka and Kanishka (127147 CE) of the. The Shah Mir Sultanate and other South Asian polities, circa 1400 CE. 2011 Duke University Press Its apt choice of kavya (poetry), as felicitously described by Shonaleeka Kaul, makes for a versatile and flexible mode that can entertain the mythic and the folk alongside classical and conventionalised registers of imagination and representation. A virtuous king, he was seduced and killed by a woman named Vatta, along with several of his sons and grandsons. The earliest reference to the Kambojas is around the 5th century BCE. There are four English translations of Rjatarangi by: Ranjit Sitaram Pandit The real power lay in the hands of a noble named Gargachandra. Sandhimati remained in prison for 10years. Eleven works of former scholars containing the chronicles of the kings, I have inspected, as well as the [Purana containing the] opinions of the sage Nila. Nevertheless, multiple scholars identify Kalhana's Ashoka with the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. Gonanda was the first king and a contemporary and enemy of the Hindu deity Krishna. Nothing is known about his origin. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. He displayed surprisingly advanced technical expertise for the time in his concern for unconventional sources. It exposes its own biases instead", "Review of Kingship in Kamr (AD11481459). [20][18][19] Economic condition was decent. Feature Flags: { Verse 12. for primarily professional audiences (e.g., in law or medicine). It covers the whole range of history in the Kashmir district from the earliest times to its synthesis. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. Owing to a certain want of care, there is not a single part in Ksemendra's "List of Kings" (Nrpavali) free from mistakes, though it is the work of a poet. it was brilliantly prepared for the work. He was known for his religious tolerance. Rajatarangini s first translation into a foreign language was as long ago as in the first decade of the 13th century, by Haidar Malik into Persian. [5] Some of the kings and dynasties can be identified with inscriptions and the histories of the empires that periodically included the Kashmir valley, but for long periods the Rajatarangini is the only source. Made king by Mamma and Yashovarman. Duke University Press publishes approximately one hundred books per year and The status of Kalhana's poem Rajatarangini was mediated in colonial India in part through its English translations. By looking at the inscriptions recording the consecrations of temples and grants by former kings, at laudatory inscriptions and at written works, the trouble arising from many errors has been overcome. A view of Ziyarat Naqshband Sahab from its yard. After that, the English translation appeared under the aegis of the Asiatic Society in 1835 and the French translation in 1852. Wife of Damodara. Kalhaa's account of Kashmir begins with the legendary reign of Gonarda, who was contemporary to Yudhishthira of the Mahbhrata, but the recorded history of Kashmir, as retold by Kalhaa begins from the period of the Mauryas. [4] It has also been suggested that he belonged to a family which accompanied the sage Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, and who were associated to either the Kubrawiya Sufi groups in Kashmir. [21][25] However, Sikandar was also the first Kashmiri ruler to convert destroyed temples into Islamic shrines, and such a display of supremacy probably had its origins in religious motivations. Book III starts with an account of the reign of Meghavahana of the restored line of Gonanda and refers to the brief reign of Matrigupta, a supposed contemporary of Vikramaditya Harsha of Malwa. Verse 11. For example, Ranaditya is given a reign of 300 years. Made his brother Sussala the ruler of Lohara. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Dethroned by Utpalaka's rival Mamma and the latter's son Yashovarman. The author Kalhana was a son of a minister of Harsha of this family. He died after hearing about the false news of Sandhimati's death. Raman Menon, an erudite scholar in both Sanskrit and Malayalam during his time. [5] The total reign of the following kings is mentioned as 1266 years. It was translated into Persian by the orders of the later Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abidin. Uninvolved by and by in the frenzy of contemporary legislative issues, he was significantly impacted by it and expressed the accompanying. Notes in parentheses refer to a book ("Taranga") and verse. Answer. Next Sultan of Kashmir was Haji Khan, who succeeded his father Zain-ul-Abidin and took the title of Haidar Khan.[30]. Several coins of a king named Toramana have been found in the Kashmir region. What is the best compliment to give to a girl? Suvrata's poem, though it has obtained celebrity, does not show dexterity in the exposition of the subject-matter, as it is rendered troublesome [reading] by misplaced learning. [19], Jonaraja and later Muslim chroniclers accuse Sikandar of terminating Kashmir's longstanding syncretic culture by persecuting Pandits and destroying numerous Hindu shrines; Suhabhat a Brahman neo-convert and Sikandar's Chief Counsel is particularly blamed for having instigated him. Sultan Zain-Ul-Abidin of Kashmir had the famous historical work, Rajatarangini, and the Mahabharata translated into Persian. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE. It covers the whole range of history in Kashmir from the earliest times to the date of its synthesis. field of Asian Studies. Skipping over "lost kings" we come to Lava of an unknown family. Verse 12. section. 1 Zain ul Abidin, a 15th century ruler of Kashmir, appointed scribes to translate the Mahabharata and Kalhana's Rajatarangini into Persian with the aim that these translations would give an insight into Hindu philosophy and culture to the rest of the world. In that officials, Abul Fazi translated Ramayana into Persian. and is known in general as a publisher willing to take chances with nontraditional Get all the important information related to the Railway Exam including the process of application, important calendar dates, eligibility criteria, exam centers etc. Request Permissions. A Shaivite during whose reigns Buddhists also flourished. His son Kshemagupta married Didda, daughter of Simharaja of Lohara. View Answer In the Karkota family, Lalitapida had a concubine, a daughter of a Kalyapala (IV.678). Zain-ul-Abidin was the eighth sultan of Kashmir. Neither in style nor in authenticity do these works approximate the quality of Kalhanas Rajatarangini. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-. And 40 years after his passing, the translation has now been brought into publication thanks to the zealous efforts of a few lovers of classical literature. Son of Lalitapida and his concubine Jayadevi. After his family, Godhara of another family ruled (I.95). The courtyard of the Jama Masjid, Srinagar. [13], Shah Mir arrived in Kashmir in 1313 along with his family, during the reign of Suhadeva (13011320), whose service he entered. He was known by his subjects as Bod Shah or Budshah (lit. Jonaraja became a Kashmiri antiquarian and Sanskrit writer. Complete Answer: In 1574 Akbar began a Maktab Khana or a place of interpretation works in Fatehpur Sikri. The Rajatarangini is a Sanskrit account of the various monarchies of Kashmir, prior to the advent of Islam. The version was entitled Behr-ul-Asmar, (or the sea of tales). [22], Kalhana's account starts to align with other historical evidence only by Book 4, which gives an account of the Karkota dynasty. Translations. Youngest son of Vajradjtya II. The Rajatarangini was written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, who was a Kashmiri Brahmin. Salhana was deposed and imprisoned. But his traditional conceptual framework, using uncritical assumptions and a belief in the role of the poet as an exponent of moral maxims, makes the idealizing content in his narrative, particularly for the early period, rather dominant. Son of Lalitaditya and Kamaladevi. The Journal of Asian Studies The Himalayan area of Kashmir is an intermontane valley shaped by the stream Jhelum (antiquated name Vitasta), a feeder of the waterway Indus. His Dvity Rjataragin can be a continuation of Kalhanas Rjataragin and brings the annal of the rulers of Kashmir proper right down to the hour of the creators supporter Zain-ul-Abidin. Book VII brings the narrative to the death of King Harsha (1101), and Book VIII deals with the stormy events between the death of Harsha and the stabilization of authority under Kalhanas contemporary Jayasimha (reigned 112849). Users can access their older comments by logging into their accounts on Vuukle. [6], On the other hand, the 15th century Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, writing in the court of Shah Mir's descendant Budshah, states that Shah Mir came to Kashmir along with his tribe from the country of Panchagahvara (identified as the Panjgabbar valley between Rajouri and Budhal). After an Abhimanyu, we come to the main Gonandiya dynasty, founded by Gonanda III. Suvrata's poem, though it has obtained celebrity, does not show dexterity in the exposition of the subject-matter, as it is rendered troublesome [reading] by misplaced learning. Arthashastra , one of the first in the history of Malayalam literature. Has data issue: true In fact, the history of Kashmir was continued, along Kalhanas line, down to some years after the annexation of Kashmir by the Mughal emperor Akbar (1586) in the following works: Rajatarangini (by Jonaraja), Jainatarangini (by Shrivara), and Rajavalipataka (by Prajyabhatta and Shuka). His father Champaka was the minister (Lord of the Gate) in the court of Harsha of Kashmir. Verse 7. Sultan Shihabud-din did not have a large number of soldiers to battle against the Kashgar army. The fate of Ali Shah is uncertain: he may have died in captivity or have been put to death by Khokhar.[28]. His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. Son of Durlabhaka and Shrinarendraprabha. His writing is full of literary devices and allusions, concealed by his unique and elegant style. [6], Son of Shreshtasena, assisted by his brother and co-regent Toramana. and interdisciplinary publications, both books and journals. This quarterly has been published regularly since For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Hence the correct answer is Option B. Ruled with his mother Didda as regent, aided by the minister Naravahana. Built a new city called Damodarasuda, and a dam called Guddasetu. After Vikramadityas death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. Qutbuddin died and was succeeded by his son Sultan Sikander also known as the Sikander Butshikand. Does adding salt to water increase conductivity? In our own time, the Kashmiri Sanskrit scholar and former diplomat A.N.D. Copyright 2019 Sawaal.com | All Rights Reserved. How much salary can I expect in Dublin Ireland after an MS in data analytics for a year? [18][19] A welfare-state was installed oppressive taxes were abolished, and free schools and hospitals were commissioned. His father Champaka was the minister (Lord of the Gate) in Harsha of Kashmir's court. In the Indian history, Madurai was the capita of Pandyas. Like the Shahnameh is to Persia, the Rajatarangini is to Kashmir. The capital of India shift from Kolkata to New Delhi in the year 1911. He dug profound into such model functions as the Harshacharita and the Brihat-Samhita sagas and utilised with a praiseworthy commonality the neighbourhood rajakathas (regal accounts) and such past chips away at Kashmir as Nripavali by Kshemendra, Parthiva Wali by Helaraja, and Nilamatapurana. This article examines two translations of the textone Orientalist and the other nationalistwith the purpose of interrogating these categories, by drawing out the complex engagement between European and indigenous ideas, and the dialogue between past and present that informed their production. The cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional". [19][21] Scholars caution against accepting the allegations at face value and attributing them solely to religious bigotry. Pratapaditya was a relative of a distant king named Vikrmaditya (II.6). It is a very good painting of the beyond with splendid recorded understanding. He dug profound into such model functions as the Harshacharita and the Brihat-Samhita sagas and utilised with a praiseworthy commonality the neighbourhood rajakathas (regal accounts) and such past chips away at Kashmir as Nripavali by Kshemendra, Parthiva Wali by Helaraja, and Nilamatapurana. [6], No kings mentioned in this book have been traced in any other historical source. 23 February 2011. But with a small army, he fought and defeated the whole army of Kashgar. The Mahabharata, Ramayana, Atharva Veda, Lilawati, Rajatarangini was translated into Persian. His family ruled for many generations. Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. The first translation of a portion of the Rajatarangini was carried out in Persian, at the behest of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin (1421-1472) A.D of Kashmir. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Daulat Khan Lodi, Rana Sangam Singh, Zahiruddin Mohammad, Turkish and more. Concerning past occasions. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. There are four English translations of Rjatarangi by: A television series based on Rajatarangini named Meeras was begun in 1986 in Doordarshan Srinagar. [5], Kalhana mentions that Gonanda I ascended the throne in 653 Kali calendar era. He was a vyavahari (perhaps merchant) who along with others who owned villages like him had set up little kingdoms during the last days of Karkotas. Jogesh Chandra Dutt in the late 19th century. Performance cookies are used to understand and analyze the key performance indexes of the website which helps in delivering a better user experience for the visitors. It emerged in South Asia after its ancestor dia Answer. He erected a monument at. Among original compositions in Persian, historical literature easily occupied the first place. involving the history, arts, social sciences, philosophy, and contemporary All rights reserved. He was a great-grandson of a Viradeva, a Kutumbi (V.469). Rajatharangini promises to arouse a great deal of interest among readers. is a record of the illustrious administrations that administered the realm of Kashmir from its putative starting points to the writers own time. Raman Menons translation attempts to preserve the essential characteristics of the original by adopting the Manipravalam diction. Omissions? Render date: 2023-03-04T12:29:12.553Z After a young son of Yashaskara, Pravaragupta, a Divira (clerk), became king. This article examines two translations of the textone "Orientalist" and the other "nationalist"with the purpose of interrogating these categories, by drawing out the complex engagement between European and indigenous ideas, and the dialogue between past and present that informed their production. Who translated Rajatarangini in Kashmiri? We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. [citation needed]. In style the Rajatarangini narrative is sometimes considered as versified prose on a massive scale, yet its strong structural appeal made it a model for later historians. He wanted his court poets to interpret the Sanskrit books Rajatarangini, Ramayana, and Mahabharata into the Persian language. Its heyday was the 13th and 14th centuries, broadly the period straddling the phase of Sanskrit literature to which Son of Lalitapida and Jayadevi, made the king by his maternal uncle Utpalaka. It describes almost two centuries of the old and early middle age history of the Valley. [28] He was defeated by Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin at Thanna with the help of Jasrath Khokhar, a chieftain from Pothohar Plateau. for this article. Defeated the Tantrins with help of Damara feudal lords. Running into almost 8000 stanzas that are inconsistently disseminated among eight books or areas, the Kalhana Rajatarangini is a record of the illustrious administrations that administered the realm of Kashmir from its putative starting points to the writers own time. Kalhana lived in a time of political turmoil in Kashmir, at that time a brilliant center of civilization in a sea of barbarism. He ascended the throne reluctantly, at the request of his guru Ishana. It was translated into Persian by the orders of the later Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abidin. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. It covers the whole range of history in the Kashmir district from the earliest times to the date of its synthesis. He also got the Mahabharata and Rajatarangini. allianz index advantage variable annuity surrender schedule, chops syndrome life expectancy,

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rajatarangini was translated into persian by